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Their acceptance may depend on the experience and understanding of individual retailers, and it is important to understand the idea of "legal tender", which is often misunderstood see section below.
The assumption that all sterling notes are legitimate and of equal value, and are accepted by merchants anywhere, has become a tourism headache in some parts of the UK.
Legal tender is a narrow technical concept for the settlement of debt, and it has little practical meaning for many everyday transactions such as buying goods in shops.
But it does apply, for example, to the settlement of a restaurant bill, where the food has been eaten prior to demand for payment and so a debt exists.
Essentially, any two parties can agree to any item of value as a medium for exchange when making a purchase in that sense, all money is ultimately an extended form of barter.
If a debt exists that is legally enforceable and the debtor party offers to pay with some item that is not "legal tender", the creditor may refuse such payment and declare that the debtor is in default of payment; if the debtor offers payment in legal tender, the creditor is required to accept it or else the creditor is in breach of contract.
Thus, if in England party A owes party B 1, pounds sterling and offers to pay in Northern Irish banknotes, party B may refuse and sue party A for non-payment; if party A provides Bank of England notes, party B must acknowledge the debt as legally paid even if party B would prefer some other form of payment.
Banknotes do not have to be classed as legal tender to be acceptable for trade; millions of retail transactions are carried out each day in the UK using debit cards and credit cards, none of which is a payment using legal tender.
Acceptability as a means of payment is essentially a matter for agreement between the parties involved. Millions of pounds' worth of sterling banknotes in circulation are not legal tender, but that does not mean that they are illegal or of lesser value; their status is of "legal currency" that is to say that their issue is approved by the parliament of the UK and they are backed up by Bank of England securities.
Bank of England notes are the only banknotes that are legal tender in England and Wales. Scottish and Northern Irish banknotes are not legal tender anywhere, and Jersey, Guernsey and Manx banknotes are only legal tender in their respective jurisdictions.
Although these banknotes are not legal tender in the UK, this does not mean that they are illegal under English law, and creditors and traders may accept them if they so choose.
Traders may, on the other hand, choose not to accept banknotes as payment, as contract law across the United Kingdom allows parties not to engage in a transaction at the point of payment if they choose not to.
In Scotland and Northern Ireland, no banknotes, not even those issued in those countries, are legal tender. Until 31 December , the Bank of England issued one pound notes, and these notes did have legal tender status in Scotland and Northern Ireland while they existed.
The UK Treasury has proposed extending legal tender status to Scottish banknotes. Most of the notes issued by the note-issuing banks in Scotland and Northern Ireland have to be backed by Bank of England notes held by the issuing bank.
The combined size of these banknote issues is well over a billion pounds. To make it possible for the note-issuing banks to hold equivalent values in Bank of England notes, the Bank of England issues special notes with denominations of one million pounds "Giants" and one hundred million pounds "Titans" for internal use by the other banks.
Bank notes are no longer redeemable in gold, and the Bank of England will only redeem sterling banknotes for more sterling banknotes or coins.
The contemporary sterling is a fiat currency which is backed only by securities; in essence IOUs from the Treasury that represent future income from the taxation of the population.
Some economists term this "currency by trust", as sterling relies on the faith of the user rather than any physical specie.
The following table lays out the various banks or authorities which are authorised to print pound sterling banknotes, organised by territory:.
In , the Bank of England gained a legal monopoly on the issue of banknotes in England and Wales, a process that started with the Bank Charter Act of when the rights of other banks to issue notes was restricted.
The bank issued its first banknotes in , although before they were written for irregular amounts, rather than predefined multiples of a pound.
It tended to be times of war, which put inflationary pressure on the British economy, that led to greater note issue. Notes did not become entirely machine-printed and payable to the bearer [ clarification needed ] until The first coloured banknotes were issued in , and were also the first notes to be printed on both sides.
There are no Welsh banknotes in circulation; Bank of England notes are used throughout Wales. The last Welsh banknotes were withdrawn in upon the closure of the last Welsh bank, the North and South Wales Bank.
All Bank of England notes issued since Series C in depict Queen Elizabeth II on the obverse side, in full view facing left; her image also appears as a hidden watermark , facing right; recent issues have the anti-photocopier security EURion constellation around.
In the mid s, shortly after the introduction of Series C, the Bank of England proposed to introduce a new banknote series featuring people from British history.
In addition to enhancing the appearance of banknotes, the complexity of the new designs was intended to make counterfeiting harder.
The task of designing the new Series D notes was given to the Bank's new in-house designer, Harry Eccleston , who not only designed the notes themselves, but also created three individual portraits of the Queen.
To that end, a Series D 10 shilling note was designed, featuring Sir Walter Raleigh , which would become the 50 pence note upon decimalisation, and intended to be the first of the new series to be issued.
However, inflation meant that the lifespan of such a note would be too short—estimates by the Decimal Currency Board suggested that a 10 shilling note would last approximately five months;  therefore, it was decided that it would be more economical to have a coin instead: the fifty pence coin was introduced in Nonetheless, all banknotes, regardless of when they were withdrawn from circulation, may be presented at the Bank of England where they will be exchanged for current banknotes.
Other banks may also decide to exchange old banknotes, but they are under no obligation to do so. When Series E was introduced in , a new portrait of the Queen was commissioned based on photographs by Don Ford, one of the Bank of England's photographers.
The Bank of England has a set of criteria for choosing characters for banknotes — initially, it looks at who has previously featured, to allow for a reflection of the diversity of society.
It does not accept fictional characters, or anyone still living with the exception of the reigning monarch , but instead aims for individuals that are both widely admired, and are considered to have made an important contribution to UK society and culture.
The final criteria is that the individual has an easily recognisable portrait available for use. As of August , the Bank of England issues five banknote denominations from two distinct series.
The notes currently in circulation are as follows. The obverse of these banknotes all feature a portrait of Queen Elizabeth II.
In September the Bank of England opened a period of public consultation about the introduction of polymer, or plastic, banknotes, which would be introduced into circulation from if the proposals were supported.
Turner from a self-portrait , the quote "Light is therefore colour" from an lecture by Turner, and a view of The Fighting Temeraire. However, the Bank of England does produce higher-value notes that are used to maintain parity with Scottish and Northern Irish notes.
Their design is based on the old Series A notes. While provincial banks in England and Wales lost the right to issue paper currency altogether, the practice of private banknote issue has continued in Scotland and Northern Ireland.
The right of Scottish banks to issue notes is popularly attributed to the author Sir Walter Scott , who in waged a campaign to retain Scottish banknotes under the pseudonym Malachi Malagrowther.
Scott feared that the limitation on private banknotes proposed with the Bankers Scotland Act would have adverse economic consequences if enacted in Scotland because gold and silver were scarce and Scottish commerce relied on small notes as the principal medium of circulating money.
His action eventually halted the abolition of private banknotes in Scotland. Scottish and Northern Irish banknotes are unusual, firstly because they are issued by retail banks, not central banks, and secondly, as they are technically not legal tender anywhere in the UK — not even in Scotland or Northern Ireland — as they are in fact promissory notes.
Seven retail banks have the authority of HM Treasury to issue sterling banknotes as currency. In , the European Central Bank indicated that, should the United Kingdom join the Euro, Scottish banks and, by extension, Northern Irish banks would have to cease banknote issue.
After the financial crisis of —08 , a number of banks were rescued from collapse by the United Kingdom government.
The Banking Act was passed to improve protection for holders of banknotes issued by the authorised banks, so that the notes would have the same level of guaranteed value to that of Bank of England notes.
Following negotiations among the UK Treasury, the Bank of England and the Scottish banks, it was agreed that the funds would earn interest, allowing them to continue to issue their own notes.
During the public debate leading up to the Scottish independence referendum , the question of Scotland's future currency was discussed.
Whilst the SNP advocated a currency union between an independent Scotland and the remaining United Kingdom,  HM Treasury issued a statement in April stating that the present relationship with the Bank of England could be changed after independence, with the result that Scottish banks might lose the ability to issue banknotes backed by Bank of England funds.
Until Scotland issued its own pound, the Pound Scots. See for example Gazette Issue published 21 February at page All Bank of Scotland notes bear a portrait of Sir Walter Scott on the front in commemoration of his Malachi Malagrowther campaign for Scottish banks to retain the right to issue their own notes.
These notes were introduced on 17 September , and show Scotland's most famous bridges on the reverse side. The Bridges of Scotland series is currently being refreshed with the issue of new polymer notes with designs that follow the same basic theme of "bridges".
The previous Tercentenary series notes are being withdrawn from circulation and replaced with the series or polymer series as these are issued , but remain legal currency.
Following the announcement that HBOS Bank of Scotland's parent company would be taken over by Lloyds TSB in September , it was confirmed that the new banking company would continue to print bank notes under the Bank of Scotland name.
As of August , the Royal Bank of Scotland is in the process of adopting a new series of banknotes. These will be made of polymer.
The reverse displays two otters and an excerpt from the poem 'Moorings' by Norman MacCaig. The previous series of Royal Bank of Scotland notes, originally issued in , remains in circulation, although it is now in the process of being replaced by polymer notes.
On the front of each note is a picture of Lord Ilay — , the first governor of the bank, based on a portrait painted in by the Edinburgh artist Allan Ramsay.
Andrew Square, Edinburgh. The background graphic on both sides of the notes is a radial star design which is based on the ornate ceiling of the banking hall in the old headquarters building.
Occasionally the Royal Bank of Scotland issues commemorative banknotes. These notes are much sought-after by collectors and they rarely remain long in circulation.
Clydesdale Bank has three series of banknotes in circulation at present. The most recent set of notes, the Polymer Series started coming into circulation in March , when the Clydesdale Bank became the first bank in Great Britain to issue polymer banknotes.
The polymer notes continue the theme of the World Heritage Series of paper banknotes, introduced in autumn Banknotes of the earlier Famous Scots Series portray notable Scottish historical people along with items and locations associated with them.
Like other banks in Northern Ireland, Bank of Ireland retains its note-issuing rights from before the partition of Ireland ; while Bank of Ireland is headquartered in Dublin, it issues sterling notes within the United Kingdom.
In spite of its name, Bank of Ireland is not, and never has been, a central bank ; it is a retail bank.
Its sterling notes should not be confused with banknotes of the former Irish pound which were in use in the Republic of Ireland before the adoption of the euro in The notes all feature an illustration of a seated woman, Hibernia , and the heraldic shields of the Counties of Northern Ireland.
The notes bear portraits of generic Northern Irish people on the front with varied illustrations on the reverse. In February , First Trust announced it would stop issuing its own banknotes, with the final withdrawal on 30 June In Northern Bank adopted the name of its Copenhagen-based parent company Danske Bank Group and rebranded its retail banking operation.
Older notes bearing the Northern Bank name will continue in circulation for some time as they are gradually withdrawn, and remain acceptable forms of payment.
In June , Ulster Bank announced the introduction of a new series of polymer banknote designs, the first in the United Kingdom to have a vertical orientation.
The new series was designed around the theme "Living in Nature", highlighting Northern Ireland's botanical, zoological and geographical features.
The first announced were the five-pound note, featuring images of Strangford Lough , the Brent goose and the fuchsia , was designed using the theme of "migration", while the ten-pound note, which carries the theme of "growth", features Lough Erne , the Irish hare and the Guelder-rose.
The Channel Islands are grouped for administrative purposes into the Bailiwicks of Jersey and Guernsey. The islands are not part of the United Kingdom but are dependencies of the British Crown and in currency union with the UK.
Both Jersey and Guernsey issue their own banknotes. These notes circulate freely between the two territories, so Jersey notes are commonly used in Guernsey, and vice versa.
Private banknotes are no longer in circulation in the Channel Islands. These pounds are sterling pounds but the word "sterling" is omitted as with the English notes.
The Government of Alderney a part of the Bailiwick of Guernsey is also licensed to issue its own currency, the Alderney pound , but only mints special commemorative sterling coins and does not issue banknotes.
The current series of notes entered circulation on 29 April The previous series, gradually being withdrawn from circulation in , depicted Queen Elizabeth II on the front and various landmarks of Jersey or incidents in Jersey history on the reverse.
The Guernsey Pound is legal tender in Guernsey , but also circulates freely in Jersey. These pounds are sterling pounds but the word "sterling" is omitted on banknotes, as on the English ones.
In addition to coins, the following banknotes are used:. The Isle of Man Government issues its own banknotes and coinage, which are legal tender in the Isle of Man.
Manx pounds are a local issue of the pound sterling, but the word "sterling" does not appear on the banknotes. These notes can be exchanged in banks and in bureaux de change in the United Kingdom.
The front of all Manx banknotes features images of Queen Elizabeth II not wearing a crown: she is only "Lord" on the island and the Triskeles three legs emblem.
Each denomination features a different scene of the Island on its reverse side:. Three British overseas territories use their own separate currencies called pounds which are at par with the pound sterling.
The governments of these territories print their own banknotes which in general may only be used within their territory of origin.
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